Gemstones also called gems,fine gem, jewel, precious stone, semiprecious stone, is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make Jewellery or other adornment.However, certain stones such as lapis lazuli, and osidian and occasionally organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber, jet and pearls are also used for jewellery and are considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity and notoriety are other characteristics that lend value to gemstones.
Apart from jewellery from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings , such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem expert is known as a gemologist,a gem maker or cutter is known as a lapidarist,a diamond cutter is called a diamantaire.
There are hundreds of different kinds of gemstones in two ranges, Precious and semi precious. There are also the organic material mentioned earlier that are considered gems. There are approximately 200 varieties of gemstones in the world. Some being more precious and rare and much sought after, making them more pricey. While others are in abundance make them semi precious